Partitions of E?eland – V. L. K. Djokoto
The forceful unilateral partitioning of E?eland by the 7th Parliament of the 4th Republic, under the administration of Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo, is widely regarded as the greatest injustice against E?es. The 2018 Oti Region was carved out of the present Volta Region; E?e territory. This has been the 5th partition of E?eland.
The 1st partition of E?eland (1884-1890) split the E?e territory between the Gold Coast and Togoland into two.
The 2nd partition of E?eland (1914-1918) occurred when German Togoland was conquered; western Togoland, including Lome, went to Britain and eastern Togoland went to France.
The 3rd partition of E?eland (1919-1920) under Article 119 of the Treaty of Versailles � Germany renounced all her rights over Togoland in favour of the principal Allied and Associated Powers. On 7th May 1919, the Supreme Allied Council requested France and Britain determine between themselves the future regime of Togoland and to recommend its adoption to the League of Nations. Under the terms of the Milner-Simon Declaration of the 10 of July, 1919 Britain and France agreed to determine the frontier between them. In 1919, the situation was reversed and in 1920 Britain handed over two-thirds of former Togoland to France and held one-third of Togoland and within six years (1914-1920) some E?es had to adjust themselves to three different colonial systems and learn to speak German-English and French.
The 4th Partition of E?eland (1921-1956) the League of Nations in July, 1921 conferred a Mandate system on Britain and France to supervise the government of Togoland. The boundary was the same as for 1919; the mandates were made definitive in 1922 and 1946 they became trusteeships and remained in force until 1956 dividing (a) E?eland under the Gold Coast Colony (b) E?eland under Britain � (British Mandated Togoland) (c) E?eland under France � French Mandated Togoland. The decision which creates a Trust territory under the Permanent Mandates Commission of the United Nations Organisation, failed to take into account the recommendation laid down in the Joint Anglo-French MEMO of May, 1919. The British Trusteeship was terminated in 1957 at Ghana’s attainment of Independence after a Plebiscite on 9th May, 1956 and a subsequent referendum on the creation of the Volta Region of Ghana. The French Trusteeship was terminated in 1960 on Togo’s attainment of Independence.
Ward on page 216 of his History of Ghana records the Togoland Plebiscite of May, 1956 and states crucial question posed thus: Would you rather be part of an Independent-Ghana, or would you rather go on as you are and be governed as a Trust territory? 93,000 in the BMT wished to part of Ghana while 66,500 in the same BMT wished to remain Trust territory
Source: Modern Ghana